16 days ago
I do not hide my view of badgers. If you are reading this in some big city, you probably think of them as loveable fury little creatures just like Foxy Woxy. I view them as aggressive vermin just like Foxy Woxy. Badgers eat hedgehogs, animals I rather like. They dig up the graveyard at the end of my fields where one day I shall be buried. They are not after the bodies, just the worms, and that also sees them digging up my lawn and those of all my neighbours. They have a go at my strawberry patch which is adjacent to their sett here at the Welsh Hovel. I loathe badgers.
19 days ago
The pleasure of reviewing a truly dismal 2020 trading statement from Eden Research (EDEN), a perennially loss making pustule on the arse of corporate Britain for more than 25 years, comes later. First to business: once again reporting this historically fraudulent enterprise to my good friends at the Financial Reporting Council, FRC, for cooking its 2019 books.
27 days ago
In May 2020, I published a detailed article asking what was happening with respect to TerpeneTech UK and the newly formed TerpeneTech Ireland - companies integral to the promotion of AIM fraudsters Eden Research (EDEN) of panama pump fraud infamy. Now that the TerpeneTech UK statutory accounts have been published, I have updated my note. The new analysis:
58 days ago
The Financial reporting Council has today released the report below, running to almost 300 pages into the crooked accounts of Autonomy and the behaviour of Deloitte and the two audit partners Mr Richard Knights and Mr Nigel Mercer. The key takeaway here is that abetting white collar crime DOES pay.
235 days ago
I hope that you appreciate the musical headline. In today’s podcast I look at Boohoo (BOO), the utterly ludicrous spoof from toxic Dave Sefton and Iconic (ICON), Natasha Toy (a Good German), Kevin Engel, Grant Thornton and the FRC and I comment on $1800 gold. In that vein with the sector set to catch fire, buy your £2.99 ticket for Mineprophets now HERE..
251 days ago
Blur Group (BLUR) floated at 82p and half a decade and a name change later delisted from the AIM casino at 0.23p. In its five years of AIM casino infamy led by CEO Philipl Letts and his ghastly Mrs, Kara Cardinale, who was the Chief Delivery Officer, it was slammed by the FRC for dodgy accounting, had numerous lack of profits warnings and bailout placings and was a case study in value destruction. As a reminder here is the track record during Letts’ tenure as CEO:
259 days ago
We have long warned you about this stock. I was thanked by the FRC for bringing issues to its attention which forced a chage of accounting policies. But still things do not ring true for drowning in debt Diversified Gas & Oil (DGOC). And now a new report emerges which raises massive questions about the most extravagant claims made by this company.
271 days ago
Here is another commendation for me for my pig ignorant critics on the Bulletin Boards and supporters of fraud to ignore. One day, maybe even Roger Lawson and certain thirsty share bloggers from Brighton might actually be forced to admit that the folks who matter not only respect my work but act on it too. This tme it concerns what was the largest oil company on AIM before it moved to the main market, Diversified Gas & Oil (DGOC). I complained about its accounts, the FRC thought I was correct and forced Diversified to make changes. The letter below makes that clear. Ouzo for the Sheriff of AIM tonight methinks.
421 days ago
Folks at the FCA say they love my work, the FRC commends me for exposing fraud, even the BBC reccognises the heroic fight we engage in against white collar crime, but there will always be critics who somehow thing the team at Shareprophets and me in particular are the bad guys. Meet one of the bigger morons on twitter….
445 days ago
NoGold has still not been in touch regarding the £50 he owes me. It seems as if my good mates at the FRC really are getting tough on executives who commit accounting fraud. Fabbo. But I ask for more. And what of lying? It is fraud of a different sort and I have strong suggestions for what the FCA and especially the Oxymorons at AIM Regulation already can do and very rarely do do but need to do so more often to drain the swamp and put me out of a job.
473 days ago
Shares in PureCircle (PURE) remain suspended as it struggles to publish its June 30 2019 accounts. But we are already warned that there will be restatements of 2018 and possibly 2017. But these restatements, which relate to the carrying value of inventory, were repeatedly predicted by ourselves for many years as you can see HERE. My good friends and keen admirers of my work, The Financial Reporting Council must launch an urgent and full investigation. I have written to the FRC today as you can see below.
476 days ago
In today’s podcast I look at PureCircle (PURE), the roll call of shame and who should be publicly executed. I also look at Dev Clever (DEV), Tissue Regenix (TRX) and, once again, at Blackmore Bond a mini bond car crash which appears imminent and is another part of what will be one of the biggest financial scandals for years.
520 days ago
The Financial Reporting Council has announced that it is to open an enquiry into the accounts of Thomas Cook (TCG) for the year ended 30 September 2018. Too little too late you say. Well perhaps, but what is at stake here is the poison at the heart of capitalism, the incestuous relationship between auditors and PLCs.
537 days ago
Diversified Gas & Oil (DGOC), the largest oil company on AIM and an enterprise whose accounts are being scrutinised by the FRC for a wholesale breach of IFRS guidelines, has announced it plans to move from the Casino to the Premium segment of the Main Market of the London Stock Exchange in Q1 2020. Both Avanti (AVN) and Quindell (QPP) made similar promises to try to keep their shares afloat. Neither actually made it off AIM as promised although, several years later, an almost bankrupt Avanti will be delisting altogether.
550 days ago
As I revealed yesterday, the FCA and FRC are both investigating Burford (BUR) following a letter I sent requesting an investigation on August 8. But Burford is Guernsey Registered so there is another regulator which needs to have a butchers. As such I have today written to the Guernsey Financial Services Commission (the tax dodger’s equivalent of the FCA) asking it to launch an enquiry. The letter is below::
551 days ago
PR spinners for Burford (BUR) have responded to the Muddy Waters dossier by getting their poodles in the deadwood press to suggest that the bear raider was up to no good and was being investigated by regulators on both sides of the Atlantic. Oh dear..I have shocking and bad news for Burford…
On August 8 I wrote to the Financial Reporting Council asking it to investigate the 2013 accounts of Burford as you can see HERE. The FRC has replied as you can see below.
565 days ago
Burford (BUR) does not have to prove it is innocent of the Muddy Waters allegations bit the longer it opts NOT to give full disclosure the more suspicions will grow. And perhaps the Oxymorons at AIM Regulation or my friends at the FRC, who I have asked to look at the accounts, may force its hand. In that vein I have written to the Nomad, Jonny Allison at Macquarie asking him to force Burford to come clean. I have cc’d in the Oxymorons and the FRC. The letter is below
575 days ago
As you know the Financial Reporting Council are big admirers of my work most recently thanking me for nailing First Derivates (FDP) HERE but inter alia, commending me for my work in exposing the Quindell (QPP) fraud HERE. As such I have been in touch asking that the FRC open a full investigation into the accounts of Burford (BUR) which, I believe, require a material restatement.
598 days ago
To those who say that ShareProphets is a joke site run by a fool or a knave, stick this letter below from the Financial Reporting Council where the sun don’t shine. Yet again the FRC is marking my homework with A*s. To those cretins on the Bullettin Boards who abuse me daily I ask: when was the last time you got a regulator to force an £800 million market cap company to change its, overly aggressive and misleading, accounting policies? Ouzo time yet again for the Sheriff of AIM.
600 days ago
The other day the Leeds office of PWC was fined heavily and slammed by the FRC for professional negligence in the case of not spotting accounting fraud at Redcentric (RCN). It was the second such notice in two years for PWC Leeds and the office is on a warning. Thus I am sorry to say but it is in the soup again over the massive undeclared payments going, over many years, to the CEO of Premier Technical Services Group (PTSG), Mr Paul Teasdale, which I exposed in full on Saturday HERE. Now here is why PWC is in the soup…
610 days ago
In today’s bearcast I look at FinnCrap (FCAP and two of its rotten clients: Telit (TCM) and Anglo African Oil & Gas (AAOG), at vile greed at Attis Oil & Gas (AOGL) , formerly Mayan/Northcote and at the latest FRC sanctions for shoddy audit work by Delotte and audit partner Helen George. I look at Weald Basin news from IGAS (IGAS) and what it means for Uk Oil 7 Gas (UKOG) et al and at daft Sound Energy (SOU) rumours.
631 days ago
In today’s bearcast I comment on Quindell fraudster Rob Terry in light of my earlier artice, I look at the FRC, PWC and Redcentric (RCN), ValiRx (VAL), Plutus Powergen (PPG) and at Neil Woodford and IP Group (IPO) which might be next to unravel as the contagion spreads.
633 days ago
I am delighted to say that my good friends at the Financial Reporting Council have acknowledged receipt of my dossier on Diversified Gas & Oil (DGOC) and are now looking at accounts which clearly need massive restatements. Meanwhile I see that the company is hosting a lunch for private investors on June 26 in London. Sadly I’m busy that day, as it is the day major renovations start at my Welsh hovel but if you want to attend email James Husband DGO@buchanan.uk.com . More pressing are the forthcoming interims….
638 days ago
Yesterday I highlighted the numerous issues which make Diversified Gas & Oil (DCOG) the most overvalued oil stock on AIM. The crux of the issue is that its freported profits since IPO have been generated almost entirely from aggressive accounting as opposed to producing hydrocarbons. I believe its accounts breach IFRS 3 and must therefore be completely restated which will wipe out nearly all of its retained profits. Let me explain.
842 days ago
As you may be aware, the accounting watchdog, the Financial Reporting Council (FRC) is a great admirer of the work of The Sheriff of AIM. And always keen to give my good friends a pointer, I have today submitted a formal request to investigate the last three year’s accounts of First Derivatives (FDP). The issue is whether stated earnings represent the underlying picture. My letter, below, is to the point.
949 days ago
Globo (GBO) was a fraud which claimed to have cash but did not and is now bust. Its downfall was precipitated by ShareProphets publishing a Gabriel Grego dossier after the FT and snot-gobbler Dan McCrum merely tipped off the CEO allowing him to dump all his shares and failed to publish. Now the Financial Reporting Council says that it is letting auditor Grant Thornton off the hook and dropping its enquiry.
988 days ago
I start with the announcement late last night from FastFoward Innovations (FFWD) the overvalued investment company run by my good friend the offshore based asset stripper Mr Jim Mellon. I move on to the FRC dealing with Russell McBurnie the disgraced ex FD of RSM Tenon and discuss book cookers, fraudsters. Sam Antar theories and crime and punishment generally. I look at Akers Biosciences (AKR) where book cooking ahead of a placing is alleged, at Zenith (ZEN) and at LPA (LPA) where i would not bottom fish after today's warning for a variety of reasons. Then I note MySquar (FRAUD) is down to 1.15p and I ask John Meyer of SP Angel once more if he will act or is he happy to wash his hands and turn a blind eye to crime. Tonight is a 6 mile training walk and Joshua and I will do two miles this morning. With Gift aid my charity walk on July 28 has now raised almost £10,000. I explain exactly what that means to Woodlarks. If you have not donated, please chip in now with a tenner to get us over £10,000 HERE
1083 days ago
It is individuals that commit financial crime not corporates. And thus, as I have noted so many times before, the only way that we will clean up financial markets in the UK is by starting to throw the book at individuals who sin, making sure that all transgressions, however small, go punished. And that brings us to today's news that the Financial Reporting Council (FRC) has started an investigation into the conduct of Mr Richard Adam and Mr Zafar Khan, former Group Finance Directors of Carillion (CLLN) and members of the ICAEW.
1131 days ago
The only UK financial watchdog that is anything other than a poodle has again bared its teeth and again it is the auditors at KPMG that are in the firing line, this time over Carillion (CLLN). Still being investigatred over its role in the Quindell fraud, let off the hook on HBOS, KPMG at least knows how the Financial Reporting Council works.
1138 days ago
The Financial Reporting Council has today fined audit firm ArrandCo, formerly known as RSM Tenon, £1 million ( reduced by 30% for co-operating) and audit partner Jeremy Filley £80,000 ( reduced to £56,000) for allowing the fraud Quindell (QPP) to publish fraudulent 2011 accounts. No doubt Snot Gobbler Dan McCrum at the FT is again about to produce a timeline taking credit for this but the FRC has stated explicitly that it widened its enquiries to include the 2011 accounts only because of specific allegation raised by me as you can see HERE. These fines are down to my work, not that the deadwood press will ever acknowledge that. So how did Rob Terry and his associated in the Quenron gang, cook the books with the help of Filley and RSM Tenon.
1203 days ago
I start this podcast with a look at Carillion (CLLN) where I wonder if Steve's damning verdict HERE is just a bit too generous. The boy is too much of a nice guy for his own good. Then it is onto the FRC which will be writing to 40 AIM and Small Cap companies ahead of them publishing FY numbers. I have a few ideas who and on what areas. The FRC are of course the UK's best regulator if only for recognising the work of the UK's top investigative financial journalist. Then I look at Angus Energy (ANGS) and finally there is a detailed discussion on MySquar (FRAUD)
1214 days ago
The old goat has turned over a new leaf and today really sticks it to Blancco Technology (BLTG) in which he admits he has a trivial holding. I doff my hat to Lawson for that and his comments on the ShareSoc blog are spot on. Personally this company's revenue recognition policies stink so much that I'd have to rate it as a sell.
1297 days ago
Back before the world went crazy in the nineties when folks committed or abetted financial wrongdoing they were named, shamed and punished as individuals. That was a real deterrent to crime. Then the world changed and we started fining corporations, banks, accountants and other advisers. The regulators announce seemingly large fines which meant they got newspaper headlines and seemed smart. But the banks and other advisers just treated the fines as a cost of business and so were not deterred from breaking the rules going forward. At least my very good friends at the Financial Reporting Council seems to appreciate that. The FRC is, as such, the UK's best regulator.
1303 days ago
That Telit (TCM) is going to zero is a given as I explained yesterday HERE. But now we need to know why Canaccord quit on May 26 as Nomad. I suggest the reason in this podcast and call for a wider AIM Casino rule change on Nomad resignations. Then it is on to 2 CEO resignations. The bombastic prick David Williams has gone from drowning in debt Avanti Communications (AVN). Avanti is toast but I run through the red flags pertaining to Williams himself and ask a question about his payoff for failure. As for Redcentric (RCN) can I claim this as a scalp? Frazer Fisher must have known about the mega payroll fraud of March 31 2016 as I revealed HERE. Yet he trousered a big 2016 bonus and sold stacks of shares just after publishing the 2016 number which he KNEW WERE CROOK. This departure is to avoid him being in situe when the FCA, FRC and SFO announce their findings. Actually can the Sheriff claim a scalp on the bombastic prick Williams too? I got the FRC to pan his company and exposed all sorts of Avanti red flags and naughtiness. Two scalps in a day - ouzo time?
1309 days ago
The big issues for AIM uber dog Servision (SEV) have always been its lack of cash generation which has forced bailout placing after bailout placing and its aggressive revenue recognition policies designed to boost the share price to allow the placings to take place. Lately there has also been an issue with withholding (bad) price sensitive information. On the revenue recognition issue I went into battle 19 months ago, reporting the company to the Financial Reporting Council and now we have another small win for the Sheriff of AIM. A letter from the FRC has just arrived...
1313 days ago
The Financial Reporting Council has announced that it has opened a formal investigation into the accounts of outsourcing group Mitie Group (MTO) for the years to March 31st 2015 and 2016. Mitie is in the spotlight and auditors Deloitte will also be investigated. So what has Baroness Ruby got to say about this?
1368 days ago
I have today received a letter from the Financial Reporting Council about a complaint I made about the uber dodgy accounts of drowning in debt heading for insolvency Avanti Communications (AVN). You will remember that Avanti did 2 transactions which generated cash in of nil and cash out of $14 million and booked that as a sale of $25 million on a 100% EBITDA margin.
1375 days ago
AIM Listed fraud Eden Research (EDEN) has bneen shown to have committed FRAUD, has been panned by the FRC and is still under FRC investigation (whatever it says). But there coulde be an even bigger problem. In its AIM admission document Eden explained that an element of its terpene chemistry was licensed as set out below:
1391 days ago
I asked my very good pals at the Financial Reporting Council, who we know are major fans of my work, to look into the fraudulent accounts of Eden Research (EDEN) for 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015 on February 17 2016. Okay 2015 accounts were not out at that point but I was sure they would be fraudulent - they were. Now 2016 accounts for Terpenetech are out we have it again confirmed that the 2015 accounts were crook and 2016 accounts - due within days - will almost certainly be fraudulent. So I have written to the FRC again. The letter follows.
1623 days ago
The FRC is already looking at the grossly misleading way that Avanti Communications (AVN) bodged its June 2015 annual results. I reckon Avanti is trying to commit an even bigger crime against prudent accounting with its 2016 numbers and they key is a satellite which is now on the move. But Avanti and its ghastly and morally bankrupt Nomad Cenkos, of Quindell infamy, are trying not to reveal the truth. So have five critical questions for Avanti and the shamed Cenkos.
1649 days ago
Nick Davis is the CEO of City law firm Memery Crystal but also sits on the board of the prestigious AIM Advisory Group. That has to end now as his role in the African Potash (AFPO) fraud comes to light. I warn African Potash that my man in London is set to supply more documents relating to yet another deal where it grossly misled investors ahead of a placing. There is worse to come and more for the SFO, FCA, FRC and AIM Regulation to get their teeth into. Now back to Davis.
1649 days ago
I have already alerted the FCA, AIM Regulation and the FRC to the growing scandal at African Potash (AFPO) with regard to the non disclosure of a £600,000 bung on December 1 2015 as part of a pre placing ramp. Now it is onto the Serious Fraud Office, SFO, to whom I have written today.
1654 days ago
Yesterday's expose here of AIM listed African Potash (AFPO) demonstrated quite explicitly and without doubt that the company was guilty of fraud - that is to say raising money, with the assistance of Nomad and broker Cantor Fitzgerald - having materially misled investors. I have today passed on the supporting documentation to three different regulators asking all three to open investigations into African Potash. My open letter explaining why follows.
1675 days ago
The FCA is set to fine Cenkos over the Quindell fraud, the FRC has thanked me as it panned Quindell for fraud, and the SFO is making good progress on the Quindell fraud yet some morons still blame me for the penury they suffer as a result of ignoring our warnings that Quenron was a fraud. These fools really do believe that Rob Terry was a good guy and, unbelievably, are still trying to put me out of business. Step forward a troll on the ADVFN Asylum posting crap under the nom de plume NickyName.
1762 days ago
In three days I shall be at the Greek Hovel with the snakes, losing weight as I engage in manual labour, leaving Steve in charge. Today I deal with silly emails from Brokerman Dan Levi. Plus ca change. In today's podcast I look at Metal Tiger (MTR) and Conroy Gold (CGNR), a company that really needs Metal's Midas touch. I look at Marechale capital (MAC), Fitbug (FITB), Arian Silver (AGQ), Wishbone (WSBN) and in detail Servision (SEV). And I have had a complaint to the FRC rejected. Drat.
1779 days ago
You were probably wondering what deal Avanti Communications (AVN) was going to do this year to increase its sales after last year's creation of revenue when it was the only person paying money - the deal the FRC is looking at HERE. And you were also wondering how it was going to raise some cash. Natch it would not be by actually selling oodles more capacity on its satellites would it?
1810 days ago
This is not hard. The RNS from Servision (SEV) today is designed to ramp the shares ahead of a rescue bailout placing. It is bollocks if you add up the numbers. So too was the last RNS by the way. I have reported this POS to the FRC for dodgy revenue recognition policies, it almost certainly now has negative net current assets and is burning cash. There is a bailout placing looming and you should sell now. This company deserves to, and could well, go bust.
1818 days ago
I have to date reported four companies to the Financial Reporting Council asking it to investigate accounts which I believe to be fraudulent and or misleading. So where am I with these four and what is the common thread?
The first to be dobbed in was Quindell. The FRC publicly acknowledged that it widened the scope of its enquiries as a result of my letter and Quindell was found guilty on all sorts of counts. Expect disciplinary action AFTER the Serious Fraud Office has made its arrests.
The next three are Eden Research (EDEN),Servision (SEV) and Avanti Communications (AVN) which all stand accused (by me) of unacceptable revenue recognition policies.
1819 days ago
Historically the pattern with Avanti Communications (AVN) has been it is asked an awkward question like how much business do you do with ISIS? Or why is it that your 2015 joke accounts are being looked at by the FRC? Or, if your bonds are junk rated when do you go bust? Its shares tumble. Then it announces a new ramptastic contract win either of an unspecified amount or for many years in the future. Its shares bounce but then fade and slump when the next question is fired over.
Each time the bounce after the ramptastic RNS signed off by Emperor CEO David Williams is that little bit smaller as fewer and fewer folk accept that his new Clothes are really that impressive.
Friday saw a first.
1842 days ago
I have today written to my good friends at the Financial Reporting Council asking for a full formal investigation into the audited accounts of Eden Research PLC (EDEN) for 2011, 2012, 2013 & 2014 which are all fraudulent and - ahead of schedule - for the 2015 accounts which will be fraudulent. The letter follows.
1849 days ago
I am still waiting for Servision (SEV) to man up and send the threatened lawyers letter to me as I am spoiling for a fight with this worthless POS as it rapidly runs out of cash. Just to keep PR Himbo Christian occupied as he briefs his new best friends the Bulletin Board Morons, I have today requested that my VERY GOOD FRIENDS at the Financial Reporting Council (FRC) open a formal investigation into the revenue recognition policy of Servision. The letter follows.
1885 days ago
The Naibu (NBU) Neds have now admitted my fraudbusting was spot on (HERE), The FRC has thanked me for alerting it to Quindell (QPP) frauds (HERE) and so 2015 was a great year of Red Flag spotting for me. Earlier in the year year I published an ebook, dedicated to fraudster Robert Simon Terry, flagging up some of what I look for in Companies that commit FRAUD
1917 days ago
The suggestion from the German paper Der Spiegel is that may well be. The paper has run a full story despite strong suggestions from Avanti Communications (AVN) lawyers that it should not do so. Given Avanti's oft repeated claims that it wins major business from the UK military perhaps it might wish to issue a formal statement. The full article is below.
On Friday I asked the FRC to look at Avanti's accounts (here). The big problem for Avanti is, of course, that it is running out of cash and that makes it a slam dunk sell. Now over to Der Spiegel
1918 days ago
Now that, post the fraud Quindell (QPP) I am such good friends with the only watchdog with teeth, the Financial Reporting Council (FRC) I have written to my pals asking them to investigate whether the 2015 accounts for Avanti Communications PLC (AVN) give a true impression of how the business is doing. I do not think they do. But Avanti also has other worries which is why the shares will crash.
The real problem is that having missed all operationg metrics with an admirable conistency, Avanti is not generating enough cash to cover its bloated PLC costs and humungous interest bill. I reckon that it will be out of cash but loaded with unrepayable debt by next June.
But the accounts for the year to June 30 2015 also trouble me greatly. Hence the letter to the FRC asking them to have a butcher's which is below.
1960 days ago
They still don’t get it. The FRC has thanked me for exposing fraud at Quindell (QPP) and the former board are being investigated by the SFO as well (it can thank me later for the assistance I have provided). Yet according to some Quindell shareholders on the LSE Asylum I am the guilty party, the devil incarnate. And boy were they looking forward to my day in the High Court today…don’t tell the morons it is off as at least one admits to going along last time to cheer on my then opponent Aiden Earley. I would not want to stop a moron from wasting a morning.
1971 days ago
A letter received today from the Financial Reporting Council confirms that it extended its enquiries into the fraud at Quindell (QPP) to take in a wider remit as a direct result of my action. I am thanked for this and it gets better still.
2030 days ago
Crowe Clark Whitehill is the UK auditor of a number on AIM casino china frauds and its associate in Fujian, Crowe Horwarth Associates really gets fingers dirty. We know that the blatant long term fraud at Sorbic (booted off the casino), Naibu (booted off the casino) and Camkids (soon to be booted off the casino) as well as at Jiasen and JQW totally escaped its attention. In light of that we bring you the latest Financial Reporting Council review of Crowe.
We suspect that the case files it reviewed did not include any of the China frauds, oops I meant clients. Perhaps next time the FRC should have a butchers at one or two of our Oriental friends.
But we draw your attention to a couple of FRC observations:
2035 days ago
This week’s disclosures by Quindell (QPP) have shown conclusively that the gargantuan body of work which started back in April 2013 by ourselves and colleagues at ShareProphets was on the button. Along the way there were allegations of securities fraud, accounting fraud, VAT fraud, insider dealing, market abuse in what is simply a staggering litany of revelations. The evidence was passed to the FCA, AIM Regulation, the SFO and others in a series of submissions going back to April 2014. Yet the FCA and AIM Regulation utterly failed to act on the evidence handed over. The FCA took until June of this year to open an investigation – we rather suspect because of a me-too response, once it was known that the SFO was involved and that the Financial Reporting Council (FRC) had been looking at Quindell. AIM has yet to confirm any actions beyond a spot of belated flag-waving.